Beneficial uses of treated CSG water can include:
• aquaculture and human consumption of aquatic foods
• coal washing
• dust suppression
• industrial use
• livestock watering
Treatment technologies CSG water varies widely in its water quality characteristics and beneficial use of the resource is unlikely without some form of treatment (an active process) or amendment (simple chemical addition, for example the addition of sulphuric acid or gypsum)
The following criteria apply to the general approval for beneficial use of CSG water for irrigation purposes:
• irrigation shall not be applied to Good Quality Agricultural Land:
• irrigation shall not be applied to land where the standing water table of an aquifer that is in productive use is less than 30 m from the ground surface anywhere within the planned irrigation area;
• the maximum electrical conductivity (EC) shall not exceed 3,000 μS/cm;
• the maximum sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) shall not exceed 8;
• the maximum bicarbonate ion concentration shall not exceed 100 mg/L;
• the maximum fluoride concentration shall not exceed 1 mg/L;
• irrigation techniques shall only include drip, centre pivot or lateral move irrigation machines fitted with low energy precision application systems;
• flood or related surface irrigation is specifically excluded;
• the annual water application rate shall not exceed the water deficit (calculated on a daily basis);
• deep drainage, due to irrigation, shall not exceed 15% of the rate of irrigation water applied to the surface;
• irrigation shall not be undertaken in circumstances where soil erosion is likely to occur; and
• irrigation shall not be undertaken at a rate that results in water run-off to permanent water courses.
CSG water can be treated with gypsum to lower the Sodium Absorption Rate (SAR) and this can be done to CSG water that has or hasn’t been processed through a desalination plant.
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